Numerous alternative products to foods of animal origin have been developed in recent years, but their precise health, social, economic and ecological impacts are unclear. Plant-based alternative products usually have lower environmental impacts. If, however, the different nutritional values are taken into account, the picture changes. Various novel foods are also being developed, such as products with insects, seaweed or lab meat, whose impacts have hardly been studied to date. We show how alternative foods can affect the environment, diet and health, and evaluate their possible societal consequences.