Yeast from feeding sugar patties can be found in honey
A field experiment reproducing a common spring bee feeding practice was performed to understand how sugar paste containing baker’s yeast are introduced into honey. All honeys harvested five weeks after the last feeding contained baker’s yeast, although supers were not placed on the bee hives during the feeding period.
Honey is the only natural sweetener offered world-wide today, which has the status of being healthy for young and old. The authenticity of honey has two different aspects: Authenticity in respect to honey production and authenticity in respect of descriptions such as geographical and botanical origin.
Honey authenticity: a review (PDF, 155 kB, 14.09.2016)
S. Bogdanov, P. Martin (2002)
Water content is an important quality trait of honey. Ideally, the water content of a honey should be under 17.5%. This enables the beekeeper to sell a high-quality honey that won’t ferment once purchased.
Water-Content Measurements in Swiss Honey of Different Production Years.
Storage and Liquefaction
Honey crystallisation is a natural process. The optimum temperature for honey granulation is between 10 and 18°C. At higher temperatures honey crystallises more slowly. Most honeys stay liquid, if stored in a freezer. There are different methods for honey liquefaction. The most important one is heating, best at 40-45°C. Micro waves are not recommended, because they harm honey by overheating.
In the following documents you can find instructions for honey technology and for the production of natural honey of good quality.
Wiederverflüssigung des Honigs (German) (PDF, 95 kB, 14.09.2016) Liquefaction of honey, a review. The different liquefaction methods are described.
S. Bogdanov (1992)
Honigverflüssigung mit Melitherm und Jakel Apparaten (German (PDF, 52 kB, 14.09.2016), French (PDF, 53 kB, 15.09.2016) and Italian (PDF, 47 kB, 14.09.2016)) Liquefaction of honey with Melitherm and Jakel heaters, and influence on honey quality.
S. Bogdanov (1994)
Lagerung, Kristallisierung und Verflüssigung des Honigs (German (PDF, 100 kB, 14.09.2016), French (PDF, 66 kB, 15.09.2016) and Italian (PDF, 54 kB, 14.09.2016)) Storage, crystallisation and liquefaction of honey. Honey defects, and how to avoid them.
S. Bogdanov (1999)